Diary of

 Corporal Phineas Bird, Company C, Recorded Between August 27, 1861and January 16, 1863

Copy of Original Diary submitted by Anonymous Contributor,

Transcribed by the websmith, David L. Welch

Photo on Left: CDV of Image of Corporal Phineas Bird, Company C, 100th Regt. PA Volunteers "The Roundheads", October 9, 1863, Knoxville, TN (reverse).  Image used with permission by Michael Kraus, Michael Kraus Collection.


Photo on Far Right: R. Saus Collection, Used with Permission

Photo on Right:  Image courtesy of Anna Killion (same photographer and time period with different pose?)

*Website Curator's Note:  This diary has been transcribed without editing original spelling errors, punctuation etc.  However, Bird was an educated and well-read soldier and the errors are few and far between!  Also, please visit the diary recently transcribed (August 2014) of Bird that covers the time period of January 1863 to March 1864.  1863/64 Diary of Corp. Phineas Bird 

Phineas Bird’s Diary

Commencing Aug. 27, 1861

Ending Dec. 31st 1862


August 27, 1861

Left my home on the Connoquenessing at five o’clock AM and found Lieutenant Morton and Wirtemburg.  After receiving the good wishes and a few articles of clothing from the people of Wirtemburg we mounted the wagons that were awaiting us and rode to Portersville where we joined the Ziegler Guards commanded by Captain Cornelius.  After paying our respects to the people of Portersville, and a dinner which they had prepared for us, we rode to Newcastle and sleped for the night.

(Page 2)

August 28, 1861

The “Roundhead” regiment formed in the diamond early in the morning and started for Enon Station in such carriages as were at hand.  On our arrival at Enon, we took the cars and next allighted at Pittsburg where we took supper at the expense of the citizens and marched into Camp “Wilkins”.

August 29, 1861

Somewhat at a loss for something to do this being my first day in camp.  In the afternoon the regiment was drawn up in line and sworn into the service of the U.S.

(Page 3)

August 30, 1861

Spent most of the time in taking a view of the camp, the people and the city.

Aug. 31st 1861

The regiment was mustered into the service today.  Nothing else of interest took place in camp.

September 1st

This being Sunday the regiment was formed and marched into the city to church.  After service we returned again to camp.  This is the first march of the “Roundheads”.

(Page 4)

September 2nd

Visited some relations in the city and left my likeness with them to be sent home.  Took the cars at 5 o’clock PM and started eastward.


Arrived at Harrisburg at 10 am.  We dismounted from the cars--took a swim in the canal then took the railroad for Baltimore


Changed cars in Baltimore before daylight and onward to Washington where we arrived—took dinner at the “Soldiers rest” and then marched into camp at Koalorama Heights,

(Page 5)

Thursday, Sept 5th 1861

Received our blankets and tents and fixed our quarters as well as we knew how.

Tuesday, Sept 10th 1861

Marched to the Arsenal in Washington where we received our arms.  On camp guard countersign is Jamaica.

Thursday Sept. 12th 1861

Drew clothes today.  I received 1 pair of shoes, two shirts and one pair of drawers.

Sunday, Sept 15th 1861

Preaching in the forenoon and also in the afternoon by the Chaplin.  Wrote a letter home after service.

(Page 6)

 Tuesday, Sept 17th 1861

Bought two songs from a newsboy and sent them to Corydon (Iowa).

Thursday, Sept 19th 1861

Detailed for camp guard, countersign Patterson.

Friday, Sept 20th 1861

Practiced at a target for awhile and then went in a swimming at Rock Creek.

Saturday, Sept 21st 1861

Received our uniform caps.

Sunday, Sept 22nd 1861

Went to hear the Chaplin preach and afterward wrote a letter and sent it home

(Page 7)

Wednesday, Sept. 25th 1861

Were marched down to the creek where we practiced at target shooting.  Received two pair of government socks.

Friday, September 27th 1861

Occupied part of the day in writing a letter home.  Drew our pants.


On guard countersign Portsmouth


Mr. Browne preached in the evening.

(Page 8)

Tuesday, October 1st 1861

Shooting at a target and swimming in the creek.  Wrote a letter to my parents.

Saturday, October 5th 1861

Received marching orders.  On camp guard.


Went to preaching and then wrote a letter home.


Wrote a letter to Oscar Bird of Wapella Iowa.

Wednesday, October 9th 1861

Received orders to be ready to march next morning at daylight.


Struck our tents at daybreak and loaded them (Page 9) on the wagons and then marched to the “Soldiers rest” in Washington passing on our way the “Whitehouse” and Capital.


Spent the day on the cars at Annapolis Junction


Went into Camp at the navy yard at Annapolis.  Company C was guarded in the observatory.


Preaching in the morning and in the evening

Tuesday, Oct. 15th 1861

We’re reviewed by General Stephens (Transcriber’s note: General Isaac I. Stevens) and Governor Hix of Maryland.

Thursday, Oct. 17th 1861

On camp guard.

(Page 10)

Friday, Oct. 18th 1861

The troops commenced to embark aboard the transports.  Sent a letter home.


Marched aboard the steamer Baltimore and steamed out to the Ocean Queen which was laying out in the bay.  We moved from the Baltimore onto the Ocean Queen and fixed ourselves for a voyage on board the latter. 

Monday, 21st 1861

Sailed for Fortress Monroe


Arrived at Fortress Monroe and anchored.  Sent a letter home.

(Page 11)

Wednesday, Oct. 23rd 1861

Passed away the time as well as possible by reading the “Shawnee Spy” and was placed on guard in the evening.

Friday, Oct. 25th 1861

A Marylander came on board and claimed our cook as his slave and took him away.  On guard.


Sent a letter home and also one to Chas. G. McKay.  A man fell off one of the ships near us and was drowned.  An eagle passed over our fleet and was greeted with cheers.


The Chaplin delivered a discourse in the dining room.  Cold weather.

(Page 12)


The surgeon vaccinated the regiment pretty generally and I among the rest.


The fleet took position and the expedition sailed for its destination. (transcriber's note: a good discussion on the magnitude of the sailing expedition is given on this webpage: http://www.pddoc.com/cw-chronicles/?p=3467; There were 45 plus ships involved in this expedition from Fortress Monroe, the original orders for ships to sail in a continuous line 1 1/2 cable lengths apart.)


Saw no land all day.  Our latitude is 33and 20‘ and our longitude is 75o and 09’ at noon.  (transcriber's note:  see thumbnail position plotted using recorded lat/long using www.mapquest.com latitude/longitude mapping engine.  See http://www.mapquest.com/maps/latlong.adp)


At noon we find ourselves in lat 34o32’ and long 75o43’.  (transcriber's note:  see thumbnail position plotted using recorded lat/long using www.mapquest.com latitude/longitude mapping engine)

(Page 13)

Friday, Nov. 1st 1861

A shower of rain in the morning and a splendid rainbow.  The weather warm and pleasant.  A gale commenced blowing in the evening and through the night it increased to a regular storm making the sea very rough and me very sick.  Longitude 72o and 57’ and Lat 39o and 55’ at noon. (transcriber's note:  these coordinates seem way off from where they had been; north up the eastern seaboard but there was a storm and their course was likely altered somewhat)



The morning light discovered the fleet separated and the “Zenas Coffin” which the “Ocean Queen” had been towing was broken loose and gone on it’s own hook.  Lat 39o29’ lon 72o 5’.   A funeral on board today. Cold and cloudy. (transcriber's note:  again these coordinates are way off from where they had been; north up the eastern seaboard)

(Page 14)

Sunday Nov. 3rd 1861

Came in sight of land and anchored.  Lat 32o 21’ Lon 75o 27’.  Preaching by the Chaplin. (transcriber's note:  these coordinates look to be reasonable, off the coast of S.C.)



The ships coming in.   The “Winfield Scott” came in without any masts.  The “Governor” reported lost.  A burial.  The gunboats advanced in the enemy and opened a lavish cannonade.


Firing kept up all day at intervals. (transcriber's note: engraving below showing Army and Navy reconnaissance ships on November 5th outside Port Royal, S.C.) 

Photo #: NH 59319 "Army & Navy Reconnoissance. Tuesday Morning Nov. 5" 1861

Line engraving published in "The Soldier in Our Civil War", Volume I, page 189, depicting Federal ships investigating Port Royal Sound, South Carolina, prior to their successful attack on Confederate fortifications there.
Ships and other items identified across the bottom of the print include (from left to right): USS Mercury, with Generals Sherman and Stevens & staff on board; USS Penguin, with Hilton Head Battery beyond; USS Pawnee; Broad River (in distance); CSS Huntress (distance); USS Seneca; steamer Screamer (distance); USS Ottawa with Capt. Rogers & General Wright on board; steamer Everglades (distance, beyond Ottawa; USS Pembina; CSS Lady Davis (distance); Beaufort River (distance); Bay Point Battery (distance); USS Curlew; Confederate camp (distance); USS Isaac Smith.

U.S. Naval Historical Center Photograph.


Sent letter no. 1 home.  On guard.  Sea very rough.  Wind fell at sunset.  (transcriber's note:  Corp. Bird numbers his letters home from this date through December of 1862)


Bombardment of Hilton Head.  Our gunboats (Page 15) opened upon the rebel batteries Walton and Beaurigard at 10 o’clock AM and the enemy abandoned them in the afternoon.   Our troops began to advance in the evening. 


Landed in the morning and ate sweet potatoes to the satisfaction of all concerned.   Dress parade.


Sent letter no 2 home.   Forraging business pretty good.  (transcriber's note:  foraging:  the business of collecting food off the land such as wild berries, sweet potatoes, etc.) in most any manner deemed necessary to augment the diet of army rations)


Unshipping goods all day and in the evening we made our camp out about ¾ths of a mile from the fort.

(Page 16)

Monday, Nov.11th 1861

Unloading goods off of the Great Republican.


On picket guard out about a mile from camp.  Countersign “Wabash”.  Stood sentinel for the reserve picket.  (transcriber's note:  interestingly, Corp. Bird throughout his diary recorded countersigns or "passwords" used in guard duty to allow soldiers in the know (officers and NCOs) through the lines--typically, a corporal on picket or guard duty would challenge a stranger coming into camp by stating, "Halt, who goes (or comes) there?"  After a response of "Friend with the Countersign", the guard would state, "Advance friend, with the countersign". If the approaching stranger did not know the countersign or forgot, the guard would come to the ready with his rifle, arrest him, and call out, "Corporal of the Guard!" Post No. ___!"  for assistance).


Came off picket at 4 PM.


On fatigue duty at the beach and had a bath in the sea.


Sent no. 3 home.  On fatigue duty.

Sunday, Nov. 17th 1861

Preaching in the forenoon and in the afternoon and also a speech by Colonel Leasure.

(Page 17)

Monday, Nov. 18th 1861

Received two months pay.  On fatigue duty.  On brigade guard, countersign “Buffalo”.


On regimental guard


Sent letter no. 4 home


Working on the intrenchments.


Drill and dress parade.


Working on the intrenchments.


Working on the intrenchments.


At work on the intrenchments.


At work on the intrenchments.

(Page 18)

Thursday, November 28th, 1861

At work on the intrenchments.  The orderly sergeant of Company A was killed by the accidental explosion of a shell.


Sent letter no. 5 home.   On brigade guard. Countersign Germantown.

(Page 19)

Sunday, December 1, 1861

Preaching in the morning and evening.


At work on the intrenchments.  Sent a letter to O.C. Bird.  A false alarm at night and the troops called out into line. 


At work on the intrenchments. 


At work on the intrenchments.  Received a letter from  C.M. McCoy.


At work on the intrenchments


Received marching orders.  Embarked on the “Parkersburg”


Steamed up to Beaufort and landed, and pitched our tents.  Found Beaufort deserted.

(Page 20)

Sunday, December 8, 1861

Marched across the island of Port Royal Ferry accompanied by a section of Hamilton’s Battery.  Remained at the Ferry as an advance guard for the army.


The 50th Pa Vols came out and received us and we returned to our camp at Beaufort.


Sent a letter no. 6 home. and also a letter to Chas. M. McCoy. 


Received letter no. 2 from home.


Sent letter no. 7 home.

(Page 21)

Saturday, December 14, 1861

On guard. Countersign Justice.


Sent a letter to O. Warner.  Preaching in the Baptist Church of Beaufort.


Reading Hoods Works.


Went to the commissary and got weighed and found my weight to be 164 lbs.  Dress Parade.


Sent letter no. 8 home.


On guard pass – brigade.


Received a letter from home.


On guard.  Countersign Sherman.

(Page 22)

Sunday, December 22nd 1861

Preaching in the Baptist Church of Beaufort at 10 am and 2 pm. 


Company and Batallion drills.


Placed my name on the sick list and was excused from duty.


Sent letter no. 9 home. 


Received a letter from B.C. Cunningham.  Dress parade and inspection ________.


Sent a letter to B.C. Cunningham.  2nd Brigade marched to the Ferry on the Coosaw River.

(Page 23)

Wednesday, January 1st, 1862

Heard the cannon at the Ferry.  Battle of Coosaw River. On provost guard in Beaufort.  The day was warm and pleasant.  (transcriber’s note: see Battle of Port Royal Ferry discussion at http://www.awod.com/gallery/probono/cwchas/ptrylfer.html

Image of Coosaw River and pickets at time of January 1st 1862 battle of Port Royal Ferry across river.  U.S. Library of Congress image.



Sent letter no. 10 home.  The 2nd brigade re-crossed the Coosaw River with one of the enemies cannon.


Went out to the Ferry and gained Company C at Seabrook. Found the company quartered in the Seabrook House (Page 24) and doing picket duty along the river.

Image: Caption Following The John E. Seabrook Estate

Image from "Civil War Treasures of the New York Historical Society" website at http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/ndlpcoop/nhihtml/cwnyhsarcp.html

(transcriber's note:  Looks like "rough" duty, doesn't it?)


Wet weather and I enjoyed myself by the fire indoors.


Drilled four hours.


Drilled and went on picket in the evening.  Countersign patience.


Received a letter from home and is from O. Warner.


Sent letter no. 11 home.  Drill in the cotton field.


Drilling in the _______ and had a boat ride on the river in the afternoon.

(Page 25)

Saturday, January 11th 1862

Drilling on the skirmish drill.  Our picket countersign Boston,


Inspection of arms and knapsacks.  Prayer meeting.


Reading Guernsey’s U.S.  Received a letter from home and one from J.W. Cunningham.


Sent letter no. 12 home and one to J. W. Cunningham.  Cold and raining all day.


Crossed with a part of the company in boats to Barnwell Island to stand picket.  Countersign cavalry. 

William Wigg Barnwell House, 501 King St.

Source:  http://www.virtualtourist.com/travel/North_America/United_States_of_America/South_Carolina/Beaufort-864333/Local_Customs-Beaufort-BR-1.html



Wet and disagreeable.

(Page 26)

Friday, January 17th 1862

Reading Guernsey’s United States and doing justice to the department of subsistence.


Received two letters from home.  On picket at the boat house, Barnwell Island.  Countersign – Cambridge


Sent letter no. 13 home.  Pleasant weather.  On quarter guard at night.  The enemy fired considerably during the night.


Major Leckey had Companies B and C as skirmish through the woods and marshes in search of spies but we had to return without finding any.

(Page 27)

Wednesday, January 22nd 1862

On quarter guard.  Cold night and rain towards morning.


Cold and wet all day.  Carrying provisions to the pickets and sitting by the fire.


On guard at post no. 1.  Countersign Tower.


The 50th Pa V. arrived at Seabrook and relieved us and we started for Beaufort at 4 pm.


On camp guard countersign Virginia.  Sent letter no. 14 home.  Beautiful weather.

(Page 28)

Tuesday, January 28th 1862

Company drill and dress parade.  Recruits arrived for our regiment.


Received two letters from home and one from R.C. Cunningham and one from C. M. McCoy.  Company and battalion drills.


Company drill, review and inspection by General Stephens (transcribers note:  Gen. Isaac Stevens, division commander killed at Chantilly, June 2, 1862).  Received two letters from home.


On picket guard along the shell road about one mile and a half from camp.  Countersign - dug-out.

(Page 29)

Saturday, February 1, 1862

We’re relieved in the morning and marched into camp.


Preaching in the Episcopal church.  Inspection of arms.  Sent no. 15 (transcriber’s note –letter) home.    


Company and brigade drills


Sent a letter to Chas. M. McCoy.  Company and brigade drills.  Peach trees in blossom.


Four ships arrive at the wharf.   Received a letter from home.  Reading “Alls not gold that glitters”.  Company and brigade drills.


On guard, countersign Newport.  A battery landed.  More recruits arrived.

(Page 30)

Friday, Feb. 7th 1862

Usual company and brigade drills.  Sent a letter to R.C. Cunningham. 


Reading “Napoleon and his Marshals”


Went to hear Mr. Browne preach in the Episcopal Church.  On guard, countersign camp_______.


Sent letter no. 16 home.  Brigade drill in the afternoon. (transcriber's note: below are two scans of a February 9, 1862 order for Lt. A. Nelson to act as officer of the guard for Feb. 10, 1862 at Beaufort S.C.  It is interesting to note that the paper is torn right out of a blank ledger page and is entirely hand written.  It measures 7.25" X 2.75" and was originally folded in half lengthwise, then in half again. It is signed by D.S. Creory, adj. The pass was most likely written by a staff clerk, Leasure's signature is signed by proxy and not by his hand--  Handwritten order scans and commentary provided by Michael Kraus)


Signed the payroll and were payed two months pay.  Playing dominoes.  Got my carcass weighed, weight being 166 lbs.


Company drill without arms.   Sent letter no. 17 home.

(Page 31)

Thursday, February 13th 1862

Company and brigade drills


Company and brigade drills


Stood picket with one of the 8th Mich and one of the 50th Pa.  Countersign Orange


Brigade drill in the afternoon.


Some officers of the 50th (Pa) reported our regiment for taking some boards and the brigade was brought out to make us take them back.  But we would not take them back and the brigade went in again.  (Transcriber’s note:  Score 100th PA 1, 50th PA 0)

(Page 32)

Wednesday, February 19th, 1862

Sent letter no. 18 home.  Company and brigade drills.  Practiced forming square by brigade.


The usual drills. 


Changing the position of our tents and cleaning our quarters.  Drill in the afternoon.


Company drill in the morning and as usual on Saturdays we got the afternoon to clean our arms.


Inspection by the Colonel (Leasure) and preaching in town.  Received a letter from home.  On provost guard Countersign - Kentucky. 

(Page 33)

Monday, February 24th 1862

Battalion drill by Col. Leasure.


Sent letter no. 19 home.  The usual drills.


On guard Countersign – Cromwell


Company drill in the forenoon and brigade drill in the afternoon. 


Quartered for our pay.  Inspection and review.

(Page 34)

Saturday, March 1, 1862

Company drill in the morning and brigade drill in the evening.


Inspection of arms and preaching.  Sent letter no. 20 home.


Company drill by Leiut. Morton (Philo S.).


Received a letter from home.  Company and battalion drill


Provost guard.  Countersign Camp.


Grand review and inspection by General Sherman.


Very cold and slight snow in the morning.  Company drill.

(Page 35)

Saturday, March 8th 1862

General Stephens (Stevens) wife arrived and they were serenaded by the Highlander’s brass band. (Transcriber’s Note:  79th New York Volunteers, “The Highlanders”, Gen. Isaac Steven’s beloved regiment) On camp guard countersign E.C.


Sent letter no. 21 home.  Received orders to be ready to march to the Ferry tomorrow.


Marched from Beaufort to Barnwell Island and took up our quarters in the Trescott  House.

Historic Trescott House at 500 Washington Street

Source:  http://www.virtualtourist.com/travel/North_America/United_States_of_America/South_Carolina/Beaufort-864333/Local_Customs-Beaufort-BR-1.html



Reading “Trees of America” and “Autobiography of Hayden”


On guard at the boat house with Fin Branden (Transcriber’s Note:  Corp. Findley Branden, Co. C, discharged on surgeon’s certificate August 18, 1862).  Reading the “_____ of China” Countersign soldier.

(Page 36)


Friday, March 14th 1862

Leiut.Critchlow, Chaplin Browne and 30 others got on flat boats and started on an expedition to Halls Island.   But the tide went down and we stuck fast in the small channel where we had to leave the boats and make our way to land through the mud.


On patrol guard, countersign shepherd.  Sent letter no. 22 home.  The boats were _____away from the land by the wind. 



(Page 37)


Monday, March 17, 1862

Received a letter from home and one from R.C. Cunningham.  Each of us received a green blanket from the Pennsylvania government.  Fred Bauder and I had a boat ride and some of us had a small naval argument on the river in dugouts.


On picket at the causeway with Fred Bauder and D. Watson.  Countersign cider.


Some rebel horses made a charge across the causeway and we received them with a volley which made them skedaddle.  The company heard the alarm and came to assist us.

(Page 38)

Wednesday, March 19th 1862

Sent a letter to R.C. Cunningham and afterwards had a boat ride.


Drill in the bay and exercise.  A false alarm at night caused by firing heard in the direction of Broad River.


Went over to L____ island as a scout on patrol guard.  Countersign Verona.


Sent letter no.23.  Prayer meeting at night.


A part of the 50th Regt. P.V. came and relieved us and we ____ over to Seabrook and marched to our camp at Beaufort.  Marched it in 3 hours.

(Page 39)

Tuesday, March 25th 1862

Received a letter from home and one from J.W. Cunningham.  Preview, inspection and dress parade. 


Company and brigade drills.  Reading “Bevel F_____”.


Company and battalion drills


Received a letter from home and sent no. 24 and one to J.W. Cunningham.  Company and Battalion drills.

(Page 40)

Tuesday, April 1st 1862

Company drill. Review and inspection by Gens Benham and Stephens (Stevens).


Signed the payroll.  On guard.  Countersign Rose


Received pay for two monthes.


One of the 79th N.Y. was drummed out of the service in presence of the brigade.  Some of the 79th boys came over and played cricket with our club.  Got my  ____ taken. 


Went to preaching and sent letter no. 25 home.  Inspection by Major Leckey.

(Page 41)

Monday, April 7th 1862

On provost guard in Beaufort.


The 8th Mich. Went to __ybee (transcriber’s note:  Tybee Island, GA).  Rec’d a letter from home. 


Company and battalion drills.  Rec’d marching orders.


Fort Pulaski bombarded and taken by our troops.  Marched to the Salt Water bridge and made our camp naming as Camp “Experiment”.


Marched to Beaufort.  On guard. Countersign – Forts.


Sent letter  no. 26 home.  Inspection and preaching.


On guard.  Countersign – Johnston

(Page 42)

Tuesday, April 15th 1862

Shooting at a target and playing alley ball.


Battle on Wilmington Island.  Target shooting.


The dead and wounded of the 8th Mich were brought to camp.  Target shooting.  Had drum fish for supper.



The Delaware brought in a mail__.  On guard.  Counsn -- Pope.


The 8th Mich arrived and the brigade turned out and escorted them to their quarters.


Sent letter no. 27  home.  Inspection, preaching and dress parade.  Received marching orders.

(Page 43)

Monday, April 21st 1862

Marched to Gray’s Hill.


The rebels fired a few shells across the Coosaw River at our pickets on the causeway.  Company C marched to Camp Stephens and then returned to camp, then enemy not attempting to cross.  Drill in the afternoon by Leiut. Col. Armstrong.


On guard.  Countersign – Yorktown.


Out gathering blackberries with Fred Bauder and J. S. Watson (transcriber’s note: Corp. John S. Watson killed at James Island, June 16th 1862 less than two months later)


Ad. White (transcriber’s note: Corp. Samuel A. White) and I visited a garden on the Mills Plantation and in the afternoon we had rain, hail and company drill.

(Page 44)

Sunday, April 27th 1862

On picket at the brickyard, Countersign – Harris


Sent letter no. 28 home


Sent a letter to O. Warner.  Company drill and dress parade.


Company drill and dress parade.  Playing baseball.

(Page 45)

Thursday, May 1st 1862

On picket guard at the Capers Plantation on Broad River.  Lieut. Calhoun officer of the guard.  Countersign – Provost


Marched to camp and spent most of the day in enjoying the refreshing influence of summer.


Lieut. Banks died.


Received a letter from home and sent one to W.R. McGregor.  At negro preaching.  Received marching orders.


On guard, marched to Beaufort being relieved by the 50th .  J. C. _____ came on a visit from Hilton Head.

 (Page 46)

Tuesday, May 6th 1862

Company C on picket.  Sent letter no. 29.


Received a letter from J. W. Cunningham and Melvina Fitzsimmons.   The brass band of the Highlanders gave a concert for the benefit of the  relations of the members of the 8th Mich killed on Wilmington Island.


On guard, countersign – Washington


Sent a letter to J. W. Cunningham.  Brigade drill


J. M. Clemmons, H.O. Gary and Wm. Anderson were elected corporals.  Went over to the camp of the 79th to see  (Page 47) their club and ours play cricket.


Sent letter no. 30.  D. Shoemaker and  Jas. Leubendorfer came to see us from Hilton Head.


Company and brigade drills.


The steamer “Planter” arrived from Charleston.  The negroes who were left in charge of her having made their escape with the vessel.  On provost guard.  (transcriber’s note:  see http://www.history.navy.mil/photos/sh-civil/civsh-p/planter.htm for more information on the taking of this ship)


Ad. White and I went to the old Spanish fort on a tour of discovery.


Sent letter no. 31.  Review and inspection.

(Page 48)

Monday, May 19th 1862

Company and brigade drill and a pontoon experiment which kept us out until after night.  Rec’d two letters.


Out practicing with a pistol.  Received marching orders.


Marched to the Ferry and returned after night.  Col. Christ advanced towards the railroad but got scared and returned.


Rec’d one letter from home and one from R.C. Cunningham.  Marched six miles toward the Ferry and returned. 


Sent a letter to R. C. Cunningham.  Went aboard the Mercury and started for Hilton Head where we got aboard the Brownsville.

(Page 49)

Sunday, June 1st 1862

Changed from the Bienville to the Henry Andrews and slept on the hurricane deck of the latter.


Started at daylight and went to St. Johns Island and disembarked at Legarville.  Our picket comder Henry Andrews.


Four companies of the 100th had a skirmish with the enemy on James Island and Capt. Cline and some others were taken prisoner.   Our regiment lost four killed and some wounded.


Our picket coun___ (countersign) – Hunter.


Gen. Wright arrived from Edisto and we went in boats to James Isle.

(Page 50)

Friday, June 6th 1862

On fatigue duty.  Sent a letter home, no. 33.  Weighed 176 lbs. (transcriber’s note:  between December 17th 1861 and June 6th 1862, Bird gained 12 lbs-this is understandable considering their plentiful food supplies during the Port Royal, S.C. campaign and the lack of continuous marching that the regiment would do later).


Clear – ch___ out about two miles to support a line of skirmishers while we advanced our pickets.


The 28th Mass had a skirmish and brought in 4 prisoners.   Wright landed on the left with 7 regiments.


On picket Counsn  - Seabrook..  We’re shelled by the batteries at Secessionville all night.  Company H had a skirmish and one of their men was wounded.


A fight took place on the left within our sight and the enemy were driven back.

(Page 51)

Wednesday, June 11th 1862

Sent letter no. 34.  The enemy kept shelling all day.


Sent a letter to J. W. Cunningham.  On fatigue duty aboard the May Flower.  Marched one mile out and remained during the night in supporting distance of the engineers who were planting a battery of siege guns. 


Three rifled cannon were taken forward during the night.


On fatigue duty a the wharf unloading cannon and gun carriages.


Sent letter no. 35.  Twenty-four hours rations ordered to be kept in our haversacks.

Monday, June 16th 1862 (transcriber’s note:  Battle of Secessionville)

We’re waked up at mid-night and ate our breakfast and put twenty-four hours rations in our haversacks.  At one o’clock we formed into line and awaited orders.  The rain falling on us constantly and adding greatly to our discomfort.  After waiting a considerable time we marched very quietly to the house at which our reserve picket was stationed and here we stopped again – waited a-while – fixed bayonet – and advanced in silence.  About day-light our ad-vance opened the engagement by giving three cheers and charging through (Page 53)  the enemies pickets and rushing directly towards the fort.    The command was given “forward into line” and then “double-quick – charge bayonet”.  We advanced toward the fort as fast as possible but the enemy opened upon us with grape and canister and our ranks getting broken we we’re obliged to fall back and reform.  After forming behind a hedge, we waited for the signal to make a second assault but Gen. Benham concluded to give up the attack and the bugle sounded the “retreat”.  We about faced and marched to the rear and the 100th remained (Page 54) at the picket line as a guard until four o’clock until we were relieved.  Company C lost four men killed.  Stewart Watson, W. A. Anderson, Jas. McCasky and Jacob Leary.  The loss of the regiment was 48 killed wounded and missing.

The Battle of Secessionville, Engraving from Leslie's Illustrated Civil War Newspaper

"Secessionville", Fine History of the Port Royal, SC Campaign and Battle of Secessionville, by Patrick Brennan


Rained all day on fatigue duty. 


Fine weather.  Sent letter no. 36


Three more cannon were unloaded off of the schooners and taken forward to our batteries.


Orders read congratulating the troops on their good conduct during the engament of the 16th.  On picket, counsn Memphis.

(Page 55)

Saturday, June 21st 1862

A flag of truce came over from the enemy. 


Sent letter no. 37.  Received a box of clothing from Beaufort which we had left behind. 


Received two months pay.  Went out after night and planted some bushes to screen our operation from the enemy.  Counsn Wabash.


On picket, Counsn Scott. 


On fatigue duty all night.  Bringing the cannon off from our works.


Sent letter no. 38.

(Page 56)

Monday, June 30th1862

Marched out to our earthworks and remained there all day, working with sticks to deceive the enemy in regard to our intention to evacuate.

(Page 57)

Tuesday, July 1st 1862

Firing from the gunboats at sunrise.  Received our mosquitoe bars.  Sent letter no. 39.


Wrights division came to the landing and part of our pickets were withdrawn, making the picket line the same as it was before Wright landed.  On picket.


Marched aboard the Ben. Deford and started for Hilton Head where we arrived at dark and landed during a tremendous rain.  Unloaded our baggage from the ship and then went and took up our quarters in a store-house.

(Page 58)

Saturday, July 5th 1862

Breakfasted with Com. of 76th Regt. P.V. (transcriber’s note:  76th Regt. PA Volunteers “Keystone Zouaves”).   Marched outside of the intrenchments and made our camp.


Marched aboard the Steamer Staten Island and sailed to Beaufort where we went a-shore, unloaded our stores, and bivouacked for the night.


Marched to Smith’s Plantation and encamped.  The negroes brought in plenty of water melons.  On provost guard.


Loaded our baggage onto the Cosmopolitan through the night and went aboard ourselves.

(Page 59)

Saturday, July 12th 1862

Steamed out to Hilton Head early in the morning and remained aboard until evening when we landed.


Weather very hot and we all kept very shady, drinking lemonade and making ourselves as miserable as possible.  Sent letter no. 41.


Received one letter from home and one from W. B. McGregor.  Marched aboard the Mayflower on which we went to the Merrimac.


Started on our voyage to the north-ward.  We’re hailed by the Bienville.

(Page 60)

Thursday, July 17th

Going ahead all day and our support water not being sufficient for the number of men on board.  As a natural consequence, it gave out and caused considerable growling among the troops.


Arrived in Fortress Monroe in the evening and cast anchor the sea being pretty rough.


Steamed up to Newport News and went to shore on the small steamer Rancacas.


Went out about two miles and pitched our tents.  Sent letter no. 42.

(Page 61)

Monday, July 21st 1862

Signed the pay-role for two months pay.


Received our pay.  Sent a letter to W. B. McGregor.


Company and battalion drill.


On fatigue duty clearing off the parade ground.  Company and Regtal drills.


Company drill and dress parade.  Our brass band discharged.

(Page 62)

Friday, August 1st 1862

Inspections, Company drill and dress parade.


Review by General Stephens (Stevens).  Reading the “Maid of the Sarinac”.


Sent letter no. 44.  Struck our tents and went aboard the steamship Atlantic.


Left Newport News and steamed up the Chesapeake.


Turned up the Potomac River and went to the mouth of Aquia Creek where we anchored.  Had a bath in the Potomac.

(Page 63)

Wednesday, August 6th 1862

Went to shore on the Elm City.  Upset the concerns of a sutler or two and then took the cars and went to Falmouth Station.


Crossed the Rappahannock – passed through Fredericksburg and encamped on a field of clover.


On picket along the Bowling Green road.  Heard the cannon at the Battle of Cedar Mountain.


Took up our line of march early – crossed the Rappahonnock – marched about 18 miles and encamped in a meadow.

(Page 64)

Thursday, August 14th 1862

Started early and marched 7 miles – took dinner.  Marched again in the evening and bivouacked for the night.  Rain fell through the night and wet the ground spoiling our bed greatly.


Crossed the Rappahonnack and marched to Culpepper.


Marched to a place called Cool Springs near the Rappidan (Rapidan) River and five miles from Culpepper.


General muster.  Sent a letter to B.C. Cunningham. Marching orders.

(Page 65)

Tuesday, May 19th 1862

Left Cool Springs at 1 o’clock A.M. and made a march of 30 miles and forded the Rappahannock at Milbank.


Left Milbank at dark and marched 8 miles up the river where we bivouacked in a corn field.


Changed our camp into a peach orchard and awaited orders.  Cannonading along the river all day. 


Marched early to Rappahannock Station where we saw Gen. Pope.  Skirmishing and artillery fire all day.

(Page 66)

Saturday, August 23rd 1862

Firing commenced early and we were marched up the river some distance and encamped.


Were shelled by the enemy but we received no injury from their shells.  Encamped near Sulphur Springs.


Marched to Warrenton and then turned and marched almost to Warrenton Junction.  Some firing by our batteries along the river.


Encamped south of Warrenton Junction.  Cannonading as usual.

(Page 67)

Wednesday, August 27th 1862

Marched in the direction of Manassas Junction and bivouacked.  Our troops had a skirmish at the junction and lost two or three regiments taken prisoner.


Marched early to the junction and found the cars burned and everything destroyed or taken.  Marched to Bull run and encamped.  Witnessed a fierce artillery fight in the evening off to the west.  On picket.  Countersign – Detroit.

(Page 68)

Friday, August 29th 1862

Marched forward early and supported a battery in the center for some time but the battery was compelled to fall back to another position and we were ordered to the right where we made a charge driving the enemy some distance through the woods but the rebels out-flanked us and we were compelled to fall back.  The 100th lost 163 men killed, wounded and missing.  Company C had two men killed.  Eli H. Wilson and Henry Campbell.  The battle lasted until some time after night.  We slept on the battlefield.

(Page 69)

Saturday, August 30th 1862

The fight did not commence very hard until about noon both armies maneuvering and getting into position in the morning.  Gen. Stephens’ (Stevens) brigade supported two batteries in the center.  Towards evening the cavalry of the enemy charged upon our batteries but we succeeded in driving them off without much difficulty.  The left of our line was driven back some distance and we were ordered to fall back.  The artillery went first and we followed the enemies cavalry making another charge which we resisted by

(Page 70)

forming into triangle and giving them a volley.  After night we retreated to Centreville and then slept until morning.


Were sent out on picket where we supported a battery.

(Page 71)

Monday, September 1st 1862

Marched to meet the enemy at Chantilly.  Our regiment being sent forward as skirmishers.  We drove the enemy about a mile when night closed the contest and we marched to Fairfax Court House.  The rain fell in torrents during the entire engagement.  We had one battery and the enemy had no artillery at all.  Gens. Stephens (Stevens) and Kearny were killed.


Marched to Alexandria and encamped on a hill above the city.  Some friends from the 134th Pa. Came to see us

(Page 72)

Thursday, September 4th 1862

Marched to Washington City.



Marched twelve miles to the northwest and encamped.



Marched to Brookville, a distance said to be 12 miles.



Made a march of twenty miles in the direction of Frederick City.



Marched to the city and encamped.  Our advance had a fight with the enemies rear guard in the streets.



Marched across the Catoctin mountains.  Made most of the march after night.


(Page 73)


Sunday, September 14th 1862

Advanced in the morning through Middleton and found our troops engaged with the enemy who had taken up a good position on South Mountain.   The 100th was thrown forward first as skirmishers and we advanced up the road some distance under the enemy’ fire but we were recalled and sent further to the left where we again attempted to ascend the mountain but one of our batteries which was in front of us came dashing back through our ranks causing some confusion and we (Page 74) were taken back and moved up another road.  This time the troops were formed in three lines and made a final charge driving the enemy over the mountain.  Miller Wright was wounded in the arm and after the engagement I helped him back to the hospital at Middleton.  Company A had three men killed:  John Miller, Jas R. Brown and George Slater.



Marched some distance in pursuit of the enemy but did not come up with them until after night when we came in sight of a battery which was guarding their rear.


(Page 75)


Tuesday, September 16th 1862


Considerable artillery fighting and the enemy on the retreat. 


17th (trancriber’s note: Battle of Antietam) The battle opened early and furiously on the right the enemy making several charges on our batteries without success.  Our regiment was ordered to the  left and we crossed Antietam bridge shortly after it had been taken by our troops and immediately we were placed in front as skirmishers.  Our division being about to make a charge.  We advanced directly up the hill in the face of the enemies batteries the whole line moving forward at once.  The enemy came in on our left and were going to out flank us and we were ordered back. We formed in three lines along the bank and slept on our arms.  The rebels burned several straw stacks making a great light after dark. 



The sharp shooters kept up firing all day and the enemy retreated during the night.  Late in the evening our regiment was ordered back across the Antietam.  We pitched our tents and got straw at a barn.


(Page 77)


Friday, September 19th 1862

Forded the creek and marched a short distance passing through Sharpsburgh and encamped near the Potomac.



Marched about a mile and encamped near the old Antietam Iron Works.



On guard, countersign:  Assaw


(Page 78)

Wednesday, October 1st 1862

Swimming in Antietam Creek.  Preaching by the Chaplin.  Dress parade.


Grand review by Pres. Lincoln and Gens. McClellan and Burnside.


On picket along the Potomac.  Countersign:  Hong Kong


Leiut. Morton went home.


Marched across the mountains and encamped in Pleasant Valley.


On guard.  Countersign – Antietam

(Page 79)

Friday, October 10th 1862

Marched to Weaverton Station to meet Col. Leasure but he did not arrive.


Took the cars at Weaverton Station to Frederick City.


Arrived at Frederick City and marched there to Monacacy where we awaited transportation.  Stuart’s cavalry recrossed into Virginia.


Embarked on the cars at dark and went to the Point of Rocks and then marched to Nolen’s Ford.


On picket along the canal.  Countersign – Chambersburg

(Page 80)

Wednesday, October 15th 1862

Left Nolen’s Ford and marched up the river to our camp in Pleasant Valley.


On guard, countersign – Vera Cruz


Marched to Berlin and crossed the Potomac on a pontoon bridge and encamped near Lovettsville.


Marched to Waterford and camped in encamped in a meadow.

(Page 81)

Sunday, November 2nd 1862

Marched from Waterford to Fillimont passing through Hamilton.


Marched to Union and encamped.


Marched to Rector Town and encamped.


Marched to Orleans passing through Salem.  On picket. Countersign – Madison.


Marched to Carter’s Run. Considerable snow fell.


Marched out of camp about one half of a mile and the orders being countermanded we returned.

(Page 82)

Saturday, November 15th 1862

Marched from Carter’s Run to Sulphur Springs and were stationed as a guard at the bridge.


Marched to Cattell Station and encamped.


Marched ten miles to the south east and encamped by the roadside.


Marched eleven miles and encamped near the place where we stopped for dinner on the 13th of Aug when we were going to join Pope at Culpepper.


Passed through Falmouth and encamped opposite Fredericksburg.

(Page 83)

Thursday, Nov. 20th 1862

Marched three miles in the direction of Bell Plain and encamped by the roadside.  Very wet and muddy.


Working on the road and hunting persimmons.


Making road all day.


Ad. White, Wm. Smiley and I ate our dinner at the house of an old farmer.  Marched to camp.


Grand review by Gen. Sumner.


Moved our camp back among the pines.

(Page 84)

Monday, Dec. 1st 1862

Company and battalion drills


Signed the pay-role for four months pay.


Received our pay.


Company drill in the morning.  The weather got very cold and a slight snow fell.

11th  (transcriber’s note:  prelude to the Battle of Fredericksburg)

Cannonading commenced before daylight our engineers having been fired upon while they were trying to place a pontoon bridge across the river.  We were marched out onto the parade ground where we (Page 85) stacked our arms and awaited orders.  The cannonading was kept up all day and a short time before dark the pontoon bridge was placed across the river.  We were marched down almost to the bridge in the evening and then the order was countermanded and we went back to camp and pitched our tents and made ourselves comfortable for the night.  A small part of the troops crossed in the evening and guarded the bridge during the night.

(Page 86)

Friday, Dec. 12th 1862

Crossed the river early in the morning and remained in town all day.  We were shelled some in the evening and had one man wounded in the 100th and several  in the other regiments. At night we stacked our arms in the street and went into the houses and slept. 

13th (transcriber’s note:  Battle of Fredericksburg)

We moved to the center where we supported a battery all day.  The battle raged without intercession from morning until after night our right wing charging the batteries above the town  (Page 87) but not being able to take them.  Our left wing drove the enemy some distance and captured one of their batteries but was not able to hold it.  At night we slept on our arms.


Marched to town and stacked our arms on the wharf and remained there all day.  The sharp shooters kept up hostilities all the time.  In the evening we went to where we were last night and remained. 


Very little done except by the sharp shooters and at night we (Page 88) retreated back across the Rappahannock.  Went to our old camp and put up our tents. 


Inspection of Arms.


Went on picket at 8 A.M. and were stationed on a reserve behind one of the batteries where we frose (froze) all night as well as we could under the circumstances.  And the circumstances were very favorable for freezing.


Mr. Browne gave us a sermon to which was added an inspection by Leiut. Critchlow.

(Page 89)

Monday, Dec. 22nd 1862

The third brigade received orders to go on picket and we did so accordingly.  The 100th was left as a reserve and we got along very well the night being warm and pleasant.


Came in off of picket and went out on review immediately.  Gen. Sumner reviewed us and we went to quarters after which I wrote letter no. 65.


Visited Chas. McCoy of the 140th regt. Pa.Vols.

(Page 90)

Thursday, December 25, 1862

Had a Christmas dinner at home and did justice to the same.


Company inspection in the morning and Review by Gen. Burns in the afternoon.


Went to mill and bought some flour.


Reading pretty much all day and were favored with dress parade in the evening.


General muster with knapsacks.

(Page 91)

(written in larger handwriting below)





December 31st 1862


(Page 92)


The Battlefield

By William C. Bryant


Once this soft, this rivulets sands,

We’ve trampled by a hurrying crowd.

And fiery hearts, and armed hands,

Encountered in the battle cloud.


Ah! Never shall the land forget,

How gushed the life-blood of her brave –

Gushed, warm with hope and courage yet,

Upon the soil they fought to save.


Now all is calm, and fresh and still,

Alone the chirp of flitting bird,

And talk of children on the hill,

And bell of wandering time are heard.


No solemn ghosts go trailing by,

The black mouthed gun and staggering swain,

Men start out at the battle cry (Page 93)

Oh, be it never heard again!


Soon rest these men who fought but thou,

Who mingled in the harder strife,

For truth which men receive not now.

Thy warfare only ends with life.


A friendless warfare lingering long,

Through weary day and weary year,

A wild and many weaponed throng,

Hang on thy front and flank and rear.


It nerve thy spirit to the proof,

And blanch not of thy chosen lot,

The timid good may stand aloof,

The sage may frown, yet paint them out.


Truth crushed to earth shall rise again;

The eternal years of God are hers;

But error, wounded, writhes in pain,

And dies among it’s worshipers.


(Page 94)


Another hand the sword shall wield,

Another hand the standard wave,

‘Till from the trumpet’s mouth is pealed,

‘The blast of triumph o’er the grave.


Yes; though thou hi upon the dust,

When they who helped thee flee in fear;

Die full of hope and manly trust,

Like those who fell in battle here.


Transcriber’s Note:     The transcription below of a poem by Amanda T. Jones from the diary of Sgt. Phineas Bird, Co. C, 100th Regt, 100th Pennsylvania Volunteers, “The Roundheads”.  The handwritten poem was penned in January 1863 and may have been copied from a newspaper publication at the time such as Frank Leslie’s Illustrated Newspaper.  The date of the poem publication or possibly date of entry in the diary is January 10th 1863. It appears to have been dedicated/inscribed to the 10th Penna Reserves(39th Regt. PA Vols) by the poet?  Most of the handwritten text of the poem I was able to decipher, but there are a few words that I could not make out and used “________” to note illegibility.  The poem must have made an impression on Bird to have gone to the extent to enter it in his diary!

I have added a brief biography of Amanda Jones and CDV image that I found on the internet that adds to the interest of the piece.  She apparently was inventor of vacuum pack canning which lead to the success of Campbell’s Soup and is still in use today!

---David L. Welch



January 19th 1863

(In large print)


Old Dominion


(Page 95)



Battle of Gaines’s Mill

(inscribed to the gallant 10th Penna Reserves)

By Amanda T. Jones


The battle’s last, long thunders rolled –

The witness-cloud to heaven was swept –

And night, the ghostly seer and old,

Around our blood-drenched borders crept:

            Upon our arms we slept.


We slept, but night, the ancient seer,

Bound o’er us his prophetic lore,

And whispered low in many an ear;

“Thou art, but though shalt be no more

when next the cannons roar.”


Sleep, that should lift the rugged cross

From staggering souls but deepened pain

With conscious sense of coming loss, (page 96)

That like a wind preceding rain,

            Blew cold across the brain.


But ah, the rain to come!  No noise

Within our guarded limits ran;

But leary hands shook slumber’s poise;

And wearily, in rear and ran,

            Our dark retreat began.


The moon, with fading splendor, sought

It’s misty home in western skies.

When woke our challenge guns, and brought

From wary foeman’s batteries

The form of quick nephis


As if fresh slaughter to foreclude,

The while by stratagem discreet,

Receding, pausing, scarce pursued,

With no disorder of defeat.

            So moved our slow retreat.


But when the sun his sword unsheathed,

And smote us sore at bay we stood –(page 97)

To God, the just, our lives bequeathed –

Planted our guns by rale and wood

            To wait the rain of blood!


It came!  Full soon the war fiend came!

Stern or hell’s king, and fiery browed,

We saw him smite with hand of flame,

The solemn battle-rank and proud,

            Where rose the sulphurous cloud.


Behind our potent guns we stood,

Then from the awful war-both flew,

Bomb followed bomb, full many a road

They ploughed the smoking woodlands through,

            And what beside-God new.


We waited till the hour approved,

To hurl our forces undismayed

Where death in all his grandeur moved,

God’s came and Liberty’s to aid,

By bayonet, ball or blade.


The fires that leap when patriots fall, (page 98)

All startling sights that cowards shun,

All sounds that hurtle and appal –

The bursting shell, the roaring gun,

            O’er all, the seething sun.


Still closely swarmed the traitor horde,

Across the hill their bullets sang,

Along our yielding van they poured,

Their shouts like peals of victory rang,

            Then at the word we sprang.


Sweeping into the front we came,

Awhile along the hillside bent,

____down the deep ravine like flame,

That pours the death-balls dine intent,

            God with us as we went.


Then did war’s crashing music roll!

Then did the fire of battle wrath,

Blush hot through enemy patriot soul,

And where we swept oe’r all the path

            Was agony and death.


(page 99)


The leaden hail smote left and right,

The air was like a furnace red,

The sky was dizzy with the sight,

The sun was ruling overhead.

            You could not count our dead.


We saw their broken columns swerve,

They shook and faltered at the test,

New vigor shot through every nerve,

And hand to hand, and breast to breast,

            The glorious charge we pressed.


We drove them from the gory banks,

Through forest aisles their courses urged;

The field and wood their eddying ranks,

Like storm tossed billows backward surged,

            By northern valor scourged.


The battle’s last, long thunders rolled,

And down the vaulted skies once more,

Came nightly the ghostly seer and old,

To read fulfillment of his lore,

            The streams of stiffening gore.


(page 100)


And we with weak and gasping breath,

With hearts that bled for comrades slain,

Reeled shuddering from the hill of death,

And laid us down to sleep again,

            The soldier’s sleep of pain.


But every step upon the ground,

And every whisper stealing near,

Smote us anew with crashing sound,

As if the cannons rent the ears,

So loud, the dead might hear.


The stars their darkest pathways had,

When we, once more, with staggering feet,

Low whispering to ourselves and God –

“Only the sleep of death is sweet” –

            Began our dark retreat.

Black Rock, Erie County, NY


See Biographical Profile on Amanda T. Jones below from NewsScan Daily Archives

Source: http://www.newsscan.com/cgi-bin/findit_view?table=honorary_subscriber&id=779

American poet, editor, and inventor Amanda Theodosia Jones (1835-1914). She published her first poems in the pages of the "Ladies' Repository," a Methodist magazine located in Cincinnati, Ohio. During the Civil War she penned a number of war-songs that received a wide circulation. After the war, in 1869, she became an associate editor on the Chicago journal, the "Universe," and was subsequently a contributor to the "Western Rural." In 1870 she was named editor of "The Bright Side," a juvenile weekly. Then in 1873 she cut back on her literary  work to pursue the commercial interests that would add her name to the  roster of American inventors, well earned by her successful food canning  process and her device for the safe fueling of oil furnaces.
     Jones was born in East Bloomfield, New York, where she grew up and attended school until 1845, when the family moved to Black Rock, near Buffalo. She graduated from the normal course at the East Aurora Academy in 1850 and then taught school for the next four years. In 1854 when her verse began to be published, she turned to writing full time. She had frequent bouts of illness, followed by periods of convalescence, which led to her engaging in various questionable therapies, eventually becoming a spiritualist, convinced that she was a medium.
     Fearing that the world in her time would be prejudiced against a woman inventor, she used her role as a medium to present her patented vacuum method for canning food as a procedure suggested communicated to her by her deceased brother. Jones went into the food canning business by founding the Women's Canning and Preserving Company. The company employed only women, which might explain the company's early demise, despite the fact that the Jones canning method, which revolutionized the food preservation process, has remained in use until the present time.
     In starting up her business Jones made the following announcement in words that are sometimes quoted in feminist circles: "This is a woman's industry. No man will vote our stock, transact our business, pronounce on women's wages, supervise our factories. Give men whatever work is suitable, but keep the governing power.... Here is a mission, let it be fulfilled."
     Taking note of the many accidents connected to the use of oil as fuel, Jones next engaged her talent for invention by coming up with a device to control the flow of oil into furnaces and other oil-burning devices. She developed her safety valve for the release of oil by performing trial and error experiments in the oil fields of Pennsylvania. The patent for her oil  burner was issued in 1880.
     The published writings of Amanda Jones include: "Ulah, and Other Poems"  (1860); "Atlantis, and Other Poems" (1866), "Poems," (1867), and "A Prairie  Idyl, and Other Poems" (1882).
Her Civil War poetry appeared serially in  "Frank Leslie's Illustrated Newspaper." 

Amanda Jones at 18.jpg (44370 bytes)

Civil War era CDV Image of Amanda Theodosia Jones (1835-1914) Poet and Inventor

Source:spicerweb.org/genealogy/ Mott/MottFam2.html








Post-War Image of Amanda T. Jones as an Inventor

Source: http://www.personal.psu.edu/faculty/c/s/csr4/PSU3/Women/Women.html

(page 101)

Fearless & Free

A farmer planted 10 trees in 5 rows and 5 in a row.

(transcriber's note:  Bird sketched the above answer to the puzzle, simple sketch transcribed using MS Windows "Paint")


(page 102)

Red, White and Blue

Oh Columbia, the gem of the ocean,

The home of the brave and the free,

The shrine of each patriot's devotion,

A world offers homage to thee.

Thy mandates make heroes assemble,

When liberty's form stand in view,

Thy banners make tyrants tremble,

When born by the red, white and blue.



When born by the red, white and blue,

When born by the red, white and blue,

Thy banners make tyrants tremble,

When born by the red, white and blue.


When war waged it's wide desolation,

And threatened our land to deform,

The ark then of freedom's foundation,

Columbia rode safe through the storm.

With her garland of victory oe'r her,

When so proudly she bore here bold crew, (page 103)

With her flag proudly floating before her,

The boast of the red, white and blue.

            The boast of ..... (chorus)


The wine cup, the wine cup bring hither,

And fill you it to the brim,

May the wreath they have won never wither,

Nor the star of  their glory grow dim,

May the service united not sever,

And hold to their colors so true,

The army and the navy forever,

Three cheers for the red, white and blue

                    Three cheers.....(chorus)

(page 104)


        Ivan, the Bandit Boy

Three cheers for our bold robber band,

Three cheers for our bold chieftain too;

Give me the life of a brigand,

And care I not, what others do.


In our lovely mountain home,

Where ruthless tyrants dare not go,

There does our band of out-laws come

Far from the vengeance of our foe.


We gently sieze the miser's gold,

And thus relive his mind from care,

And when he's dead and 'neath the mould,

What good would money do him there?


One-hundred bandits true and brave,

Our gallant chief to do, and dare,

Will teach world's despots to enslave,

Men who were born as free as air.

(page 105)

We know no more what virtue means,

It's laws on us  have ceased to bind,

And now we swore, by all the fiends,

Eternal hatred to mankind.


January 16th 1863

A farmer planted 27 trees in 9 rows with 6 in row.

(transcriber's note:  Bird sketched the above answer to the puzzle, simple sketch transcribed using MS Windows "Paint")


(page 106)

We are Parted

Alas! we are parted,

Our farewells are o'er.

We'll mingle together

In pleasure, no more.


Our paths are divided,

Our homes are apart,

These meetings are over,

That gladdened the heart.


And still we'll remember!

How can we forget.

Those meetings of pleasure,

That cling to us yet.


The _______ that we visit,

Each _____ breathing flower,

Will bring the remembrance

Of each happy hour.

(page 107)

And though we will mingle,

Together no more

How sweet to remember

The meetings of yore.


A farmer planted eleven trees in eleven rows with three trees in a row.  In what way did he do it?

(transcriber's note:  Bird sketched the above answer to the puzzle, simple sketch transcribed using MS Windows "Paint";  I have added three missing rows in "red" that Corp. Bird did not add to the sketch to complete the riddle!  Was he stumped? ---DLW)


Below is a post-war letter that the owner (anonymous) of the diary wishes to accompany the transcribed diary.  It is written to Phineas Bird from Lt. David Critchlow, Co. C dated January 10th, 1880.

New Brighton   Jan. 10, 1880

Phineas Bird

Dear Sir

Enclosed pleas find paper executed according to my best recollection of knowledge and belief about your exchange.  I was not quite certain but my belief is that you were either exchanged very soon or escaped from the enemy--that is, not material.  Sorry to hear your health is not good and consequently not able to work but was glad to hear you were able to hire what help you needed.

R. W. Mellen is practicing medicine in Lowelville Mahoning County Ohio, when any communication you may wish to send will doubtless reach him.

Truly yours,

D. Critchlow

(transcriber's note:  the content of this letter indicates that Bird was taken prisoner at some point. The 1882 Nodaway County, MO County History/Biographical profile of Bird (at the end of this webpage) also supports this, stating that he was captured at Petersburg after receiving a wound in the head and spent 6 months there before being released.)


Additional information collected from the Gavin's history of the regiment, letters of Corp. Frederick Pettit, Co. C, or other sources as indicated:


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