Major Battles, Sieges or other Action of the 100th Regiment, Pennsylvania Volunteers, "Roundheads"

National Park Service Photograph, no photographer or copyright information listed: http://www.nps.gov/civilwar/search-battles.htm


This website gives a good list of major campaigns/battles that the 100th Pennsylvania participated in from www.civilwarintheeast.com.



Port Royal, S.C. Nov. 7, 1861 (US Naval Ship artillery siege on Confederate Earthworks Forts Walker and Beauregard)

   <--Federal Bombardment of Fort Walker and Beauregard with Transport Fleet in the distance that Roundheads were part of, waiting to land after the bombbardment and evacuation by the Confederates.



Port Royal Ferry, S.C. Jan. 1, 1862 Synopsis of units engaged and battle from www.civilwarreference.com.

   <-- Port Royal Ferry, SC


James Island, S.C.  Skirmish at Legare's Point, June 3, 1862 (the best account of this skirmish comes from Captain James Cline, Co. F who was captured here and was a prisoner of war for around 90 days.)

   <--Captain James F. Cline, Co. F, captured at Skirmish at Legare's Point June 3, 1862.


James Island, S.C.  Battle of Secessionville, June 16, 1862 (this is a good article on the battle that draws heavily on both the History of the 79th NY Highlanders and Patrick Brennan's recent and acclaimed history, Secessionville

  <--Federal Troops, including the Roundhead Regiment, storm Tower Lamar, June 16, 1862


Bull Run (2nd Battle of), Va.  Aug. 29 and 30, 1862

   <--Painting of 2nd Battle of Bull Run by Currier and Ives


Chantilly, Va.  Sept. 1, 1862

   <--Death of General Isaac Stevens at Battle of Chantilly September 1, 1862 by Alonzo Chapel--1865 


South Mountain, Md.  Sept. 14, 1862

   <--Battle of South Mountain painting, Fox's Gap


Antietam, Md.  Sept. 17, 1862

   <--Battle of Antietam, Assault across Burnside's Bridge Art Sketch, Edwin Forbes


Fredericksburg, Va., Dec. 12 and 13, 1862

   <--Battle of Fredericksburg diorama--Roundheads fortunately were not in the Union's assault on Marye's Heights shown here but were posted near the river off the right edge of the diorama, near the center of the union army posted as a reserve.




Siege of Vicksburg, MS   June 15 to July 4, 1863

  <-- Siege on Vicksburg Painting


Siege on Jackson, MS, July 11 to 15, 1863

  <--Harrison Sampson  of Co. D, one of only two Roundheads wounded in action at Jackson, MS--wounded on July 15, 1863, the other was Christian Lobingier of Co. A on July 13, 1863.  Read Lobingier's 1862 diary here.


Blue Springs, Tenn.   Oct. 10, 1863

   <--Tennessee Historical Marker No. IC 72 for Battle of Blue Springs, TN, Oct 10, 1863


Campbell Station, Tenn.   Nov. 16, 1863

   <--Tennessee Historical Marker No. IE 73 for Battle of Campbell Station, TN, Oct 10, 1863


Siege of Knoxville, Tenn.  Nov. 18, to Dec. 5, 1863

   <--Corporal Phineas Bird, Co. C, only Roundhead listed as casualty during siege (except for Battle of Fort Saunders on Nov. 29, 1863); .  Bird was wounded in the head on Nov. 20, 1863 but survived.  Bird had his likeness taken only several days before receiving his wound.  Photograph from Michael Kraus Collection, used with permission.  Read Bird's 1862 diary here.  This image of Bird is also in the December 2012 Publication "The Civil War in Pennsylvania, A Photographic History", by Ken Turner, Michael Kraus and David Neville available for purchase here.


Fort Sanders, Tenn. Nov. 29, 1863

  <--Harper's Weekly lithograph of Battle of Fort Sanders.  Please visit the memorial dedication page to fallen Roundheads Isaac Garretson and Aaron Templeton of Co. A who were killed at Fort Sanders (aka Saunders).




Wilderness, Va. May 6, 1864

   <--One of the characteristics of the Battle of the Wilderness was the horrible fires that swept across the heavy brush and wooded battlefield.   This sketch by famous artist and photographer Alfred R. Waud, depicts the fires that swept over the field and burned many wounded soldiers alive.

Spottsylvania Court House, Va. May 12, 1864

   <--Battle of Spottsylvania Court House as depicted by Currier & Ives.  The Roundhead Regiment sustained heavy losses on this day.  Many of their fresh February and March 1864 recruits were killed or wounded in this battle, inexperienced soldiers trying to fight and survive across a difficult wooded battlefield.   The American Civil War Research database records 19 killed, 74 wounded and 1 missing in the battle--the worst casualties for the regiment during the entire war.  The Official Records record the regiment lost 44 killed and mortally wounded.  The Daniel Shaner Diary, Henderson George Diary and and B.F. Junkin Diary all provide an eyewitness log to the severity of the fighting.


North Anna River, Va. May 23, 1864

   <--Pontoon bridge across the North Anna River constructed by US Engineers prior to the battle.  No deaths were reported in the battle for the regiment, though there were seven wounded over four days of fighting.


Bethesda Church, Va. May 28-30, 1864

   <--Battle of Bethesda Church Marker O-12.


Cold Harbor, Va. June 1-3, 1864

   <--Lt. David J. Gilfillian, Co. F--promising officer was killed at Cold Harbor on June 1, 1864.  A descendant of this soldier, the late William Gilfillian Gavin, wrote the 1989 history of the regiment, "Campaigning with the Roundheads"  The 2nd regimental flag shows the battle honors of Cold Harbor spelled as "Coal Harbor", which is what the soldiers apparently called it.


Assault on Petersburg, Va. June 17, 1864

   <--Several assaults were made by Grant's Army at the beginning of the 10 month Siege on Petersburg, VA starting in June of 1864, immediately following Cold Harbor.  The Roundheads participated in the 2nd assault and took heavy losses on June 17, 1864.  Artwork from Harper's Weekly from that time period.


Mine Explosion, Va. July 30, 1864

   <-- Battle of the Mine Explosion or "Battle of the Crater";  A brilliant plan to blow up the Confederate lines and breach them to deliver a final blow to the Confederacy was poorly executed by Union command.  Allegedly, one of the commanders, General Ledlie, sat in a bombproof and drank whiskey during the detonation of the mine and subsequent assault into the crater. 

The 100th Pennyslvania were heavily involved in the assault through the pit after the Confederates had regrouped and directed artillery into the crowded pit of fighting, struggling and dying men.  Their colors (left) were shattered when a shell struck Lt. Richard Craven of Co. K (right) who had picked up the colors and was rallying the men.  The shell obliterated Craven based on eyewitness accounts by numerous veterans, shattered the staff of the colors and shredded the flag.  A portion of the flag was recovered and another portion of the flag returned by Confederate veterans to the State of Pennsylvania years later. 

A re-creation of this battle at the beginning of the film "Cold Mountain" accurately depicted the trenches outside of Petersburg, the mine explosion, resulting crater and cramped fighting conditions inside the pit.  A detailed history of the battle was written by Silas Stevenson here.  An excellent website on the Siege on Petersburg is presented by Brett Schulte at www.beyondthecrater.com


Weldon Rail Road, Va. Aug. 19 through 21, 1864

  <--Corp. John McConnell, Co.D killed Aug 19, 1864 at Weldon Railroad


Poplar Grove Church, Va. Sept. 30, 1864 (not much for battle summaries available on the internet, but this account found on Brett Schulte's www.beyondthecrater.com is a good synopsis.

   <--Poplar Grove National Cemetery annual luminary lighting; The site of this National Cemetery near the Poplar Grove Church battlefield, has a number of Roundheads buried there.


Hatcher’s Run, Va. Oct. 27, 1864

   <--  The Second Corps, under General Hancock, Flanking the Confederate Works at Armstrong's Mill on Hatcher's Run, VA, October 27, 1864.  Original photo from Harper's Weekly, image courtesy of Brett Schulte's www.beyondthecrater.com website.




Fort Stedman, Va. March 25, 1865

   <--One of the Roundheads' finest moments taking part in the re-taking of Fort Stedman, March 25, 1865.  This Library of Congress painting at the Petersburg National Battlefield Park shows the union forces storming up the trenches into Fort Stedman with Petersburg, VA spires in the horizon.  Roundheads were positioned near Fort Haskell shown in the distance in the upper left corner of the painting when Gordon made his surprise attack in the early morning hours, driving the 100th PA from their camp.  It was here that commanding officer Lt. Col. Joseph Pentecost was mortally wounded.  Major Norman J. Maxwell, 2nd in command with Captain Joseph F. Carter of the 3rd Maryland, organized a contingent to retake the fort. Though Hartranfts 9th Corps 3rd Division received most of the credit for the retaking of the fort in the history books, Orlando B. Willcox's 9th Corps 1st Division (including the Roundheads and 3rd Maryland) was every bit as deserving.  A wonderful biography on Gen. O.B. Willcox, "Forgotten Valor, The Memoirs, Journals and Civil War Letters of Orlando B. Willcox", edited by Robert Garth Scott, has detailed description of the 1st Division's Service at Fort Stedman.  Also visit the websmith's page on Fort Stedman, http://www.100thpenn.com/fortstedman.htm and the Medal of Honor Page where both Medals of Honor awarded to Roundhead soldiers were based on actions here.  


Final Assault on Petersburg, Va. April 2, 1865

   <--Captain Charles Gould of the 5th Vermont breaches the Confederate Lines at Petersburg, April 2, 1865.  Don Troiani painting, www.historicalartprints.com

On a side note, the websmith David L. Welch is also a descendant of a soldier of the 5th Vermont Infantry, Charles G. Sheldon.  Pvt. Sheldon was in some severe Civil War Battles, particularly Savages Station in McClellan's Seven Days Battles of 1862 where he was one of only seven soldiers in his company that was not killed or wounded and one of 15 that were not killed.  Pvt. Sheldon had already mustered out on disability due to poor health prior to the breach at Petersburg, VA.  An excellent history of Sheldon's Co. E, Equinox Guard, "No Braver Deeds", the Story of the Equinox Guards" is available from author Brian L. Knight.





This site was last updated 02/18/13